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The field of marine mammal science has a growing appeal. Yet, many students do not clearly understand what the field involves. This page addresses questions commonly asked by people seeking a career in marine mammal science in the United States and provides suggestions on how to plan education and work experience.

What is marine mammal science?

How difficult is it to pursue a career in marine mammal science?

What are typical salaries in marine mammal careers?

What types of jobs involve marine mammals?

Who employs marine mammal scientists?

What education is necessary to become a marine mammal scientist?

What additional career opportunities will a graduate degree provide?

How to find a university program in marine mammal science.

How to find an advisor for graduate studies.

How to write a cover letter with an application.

What information to include in a résumé.

How to obtain letters of recommendation.

How to convince an advisor to accept a graduate student.

How to gain practical work experience with marine mammals.

How to become a marine mammal trainer.

How to become a marine mammal veterinarian.

How to find out about jobs with marine mammals.

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Audiovisual Materials

Teaching Materials

What is marine mammal science?

There are about 100 species of aquatic or marine mammals that depend on fresh water or the ocean for part or all of their life. These species include pinnipeds, which are seals, sea lions, fur seals and walrus; cetaceans, which are baleen and toothed whales, ocean and river dolphins, and porpoises; sirenians, which are manatees and dugongs; and some carnivores, such as sea otters and polar bears. Marine mammal scientists try to understand these animals' genetic, systematic, and evolutionary relationships; population structure; community dynamics; anatomy and physiology; behavior and sensory abilities; parasites and diseases; geographic and microhabitat distributions; ecology; management; and conservation.

How difficult is it to pursue a career in marine mammal science?

Working with marine mammals is appealing because of strong public interest in these animals and because the work is personally rewarding. However, competition for positions is keen.

There are no specific statistics available on employment of students trained as marine mammal scientists. However, in 1990 the National Science Board reported some general statistics for employment of scientists within the US: 75% of scientists with B.S. degrees were employed (43% of them held positions in science or engineering), 20% were in graduate school, and 5% were unemployed.

Marine mammal scientists are hired because of their skills as scientists, not because they like or want to work with marine mammals. A strong academic background in basic sciences, such as biology, chemistry, and physics, coupled with good training in mathematics and computers, is the best way to prepare for a career in marine mammal science. Persistence and diverse experiences make the most qualified individuals. Often developing a specialized scientific skill or technique, such as acoustics analysis, biostatistics, genetic analysis, or biomolecular analyses, provides a competitive edge.

What are typical salaries in marine mammal careers?

Marine mammal scientists enter this field for the satisfaction of the work, not for the money-making potential of the career. Salaries vary greatly among marine mammal scientists, with government and industry jobs having the highest pay. Salary levels will increase with years of experience and graduate degrees, but generally remain low considering the amount of experience and education needed. High competition in this field most likely will keep salaries at a modest level. A 1990 survey of 1,234 mammalogists conducted by the American Society of Mammalogists indicated that 42.7% of the respondents earned >$40,000/year. The salary range that included the most respondents (21.2%) was the $30,000-$40,000 range.

What types of jobs involve marine mammals?

Most jobs with marine mammals are not as exciting or glamorous as popular television programs make them seem. Marine mammal studies often involve long, hard, soggy, sunburned days at sea, countless hours in a laboratory, extensive work on computers, hard labor such as hauling buckets of fish to feed animals, hours of cleanup, numerous reports, tedious grant applications and permit applications.

As in other fields of science, jobs dealing with marine mammals vary widely. Examples of marine mammal jobs include researcher, field biologist, fishery vessel observer, laboratory technician, animal trainer, animal care specialist, veterinarian, whalewatch guide, naturalist, educator at any level and government or private agency positions in legislative, management, conservation, and animal welfare issues. Many marine mammal scientists work with museum displays and collections, as a curator, an artist, an illustrator, a photographer, or a film maker.

Answers to the following questions will help focus interests and indicate which marine mammal scientists and facilities to contact for education, work experience, and job opportunities.

1)What specific areas are of interest, e.g. anatomy, physiology, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, ethology, psychology, molecular biology, genetics, veterinary medicine, pathology, toxicology, biostatistics, management, conservation, museum curation, or education?

2)What species or group of marine mammals is of interest, e.g. cetaceans, sirenians or marine carnivores?

3) Is a career involved in field or laboratory work desired?

4) Is a career involve with care of animals, teaching, research, or legislative/policy matters wanted?

5) Is working for government, industry, academia, oceanaria, museums, private organizations, or self-employment best?

6) In what part of the world is work desired?

For example, the manatee is an endangered species in Florida. They have a high mortality rate because of al entrapment in flood control gates, collisions with speed boats, and loss of habitat. Local, state, and federal governments fund research on this species. Some local industries also are involved with management of manatees. Therefore, people wanting to study manatees most likely should look for education and work experience at universities and research facilities in Florida.

Who employs marine mammal scientists?

A variety of international, federal, state, and local government agencies employ marine mammal scientists for positions in research, education, management, and legal/policy development. U.S. federal agencies include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Minerals Management Service, US Fish & Wildlife Service, US National Biological Service, US Navy, Office of Naval Research, Coast Guard, and Marine Mammal Commission. Other Federal agencies that work on marine-related issues include the National Park Service, Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of State, and Smithsonian Institution.

When oceanic operations, such as oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation, affect marine mammals these industries often hires marine mammal experts. Because commercial fishing operations can conflict with marine mammal conservation, some fishing organizations hire marine mammal scientists. Many environmental, advocacy, and animal welfare organizations hire marine mammal specialists. Oceanaria and zoos hire marine mammal specialists for veterinary care, husbandry, training, research, and education programs. Museums hire marine mammal specialists for educational programs, research, and curatorial positions.

What education is necessary to become a marine mammal scientist?

High School Studies:

A broad education is essential for finding employment in marine mammal science. High school courses such as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, computer science, and language will provide a good educational base. Consult a guidance counselor for help in selecting course work. Good grades are essential for admission to a university.

Undergraduate Studies:

Most entry-level marine mammal jobs require a B.S. degree, with a major in biology, chemistry, physics, geology, or psychology. A minor in any science, computer science, mathematics, statistics, or engineering also can be helpful. Good language and technical writing skills are essential. Many people are surprised by the amount of writing involved in marine mammal professions. Because marine mammals are found worldwide, foreign language training often is useful.

A student must first become a scientist before specializing in marine mammals. Generally, undergraduate students will concentrate on a basic science curriculum and rarely have an opportunity to take courses related to marine mammal science. Specialization in marine mammals generally comes later through practical work experience or while working toward an advanced degree. In other words, if your B.S. degree program does not include courses in marine sciences, do not become discouraged. Concentrate on finding practical experience and/or a master's degree with emphasis in marine mammal science. Maintaining a high grade point average as an undergraduate is very important to gain admission to graduate school.

Graduate Studies:

The master's degree is usually the first opportunity college students have to specialize in marine mammal science. Care should be taken to select an advisor with experience in the subject and a reputable university with a diverse curriculum that will enable s focus on marine mammal science.

Students who have dual majors or interdisciplinary training sometimes have more employment opportunities. Because the field of marine mammal science is so diverse, students who train in specialized areas have practical tools that may help them gain employment. For example, a graduate degree in statistics can be very useful for entering the field of population assessment. A degree in electrical engineering can be particularly useful for bioacoustic research. A graduate degree in environmental law can be important for developing a career in government policy-making or conservation.

What additional career opportunities will a graduate degree provide?

With a B.S. degree, potential positions include animal care specialist, animal trainer, field technician, laboratory technician, consultant for industry, and entry-level government position. Generally, jobs at this level offer little opportunity for self-directed work.

The M.S. degree can facilitate individual work with marine mammals, e.g. designing research projects, developing management plans, supervising field or laboratory studies, or heading programs in education, husbandry, or training.

The acquisition of a Ph.D. or D.V.M. (or both) provides more career opportunities, including design and management of field and laboratory research programs, university faculty positions, coordination of government and industry programs, and management positions in oceanaria or museums.

Years of practical work experience sometimes can substitute for a graduate degree, but the time required to advance is typically longer.

How to find a university program in marine mammal science:

There are very few universities that offer a marine mammal science curriculum. To select an undergraduate university, visit campuses and talk with professors and students about career interests. Most university libraries or counseling centers have university catalogs to identify schools. In addition, there are several publications that list graduate programs by state and discipline, list marine mammal scientists by address, or summarize areas of research by marine mammal scientists (see list at the end of this brochure).

An interest in a certain marine mammal species may influence the geographic location of the graduate university selected. However, in most instances the best university is determined by selecting a graduate advisor specializing in a particular field.

Students should consider applying to several graduate schools. Application deadlines vary, but typically applications should be submitted in January for admission into a graduate program the following fall. Many universities require graduate school applicants to take the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and include the test scores with their applications.

How to find an advisor for graduate studies:

Selecting an advisor for a graduate degree is a very important decision. He or she will become a mentor, a career-long colleague, and will help establish a network of scientific colleagues. An advisor helps to obtain funds to support graduate student research and helps make contacts for future employment.

First, identify marine mammal scientists who are doing current research in an area of interest, their university affiliation, whether they have funds to support graduate students, and if they are accepting new students. Keep in mind that many government and industry scientists also have adjunct appointments at universities and can serve as co-advisors.

There are two ways to find potential advisors:

1) Find the names of authors in current scientific journals, such as Marine Mammal Science, Aquatic Mammals, Journal of Mammalogy, Canadian Journal of Zoology, Journal of Zoology, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, or Fisheries Bulletin, or in recently published books on marine mammals. Scientists who publish may be in situations where they can accept graduate students.

2) Attend specialized scientific conferences on marine mammals hosted by professional societies such as The Society for Marine Mammalogy, International Marine Animal Trainers' Association, European Association for Aquatic Mammals, European Cetacean Society, American Cetacean Society, or International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine. Dates and locations of these meetings are published in the newsletter or journal of the respective societies. At these meetings, make a personal contact with a potential advisor and express your interest in doing graduate work with him or her. Follow-up any good lead with a telephone call, letter, or visit.

Because there is competition for advisors in the field of marine mammal science, an advisor will select students from a pool of applicants. Students should realize that, unlike the case in undergraduate study, graduate school faculty do NOT have to advise students just because they are enrolled at their university. Students sometimes enroll at a university because of a well-known professor and assume they will have the opportunity to work under him or her. BEFORE entering a graduate program, contact the professor and establish his or her willingness to serve as an advisor. If necessary, discuss the possibilities of financial support and decide on a potential research project. Choose a thesis research topic carefully so it is practical, scientifically sound and potentially fundable. Seek advice from others on this, perhaps in the form of a draft research proposal. At many universities, the advisor needs to notify the graduate school to approve an application. Many prospective graduate students with good grades and experience are rejected because they do not have an advisor working from inside the university to facilitate their acceptance.

Many graduate schools will not accept students without financial support. Graduate assistantship funds for marine mammal studies are rare, and most graduate programs have a limited number of teaching assistantships. Students should be prepared to support themselves or find research funds on their own.

How to write a cover letter with an application:

To write the most appropriate cover letter with a job or graduate program application, carefully review the description of the position and tailor the cover letter to fit those requirements. Proper spelling and grammar are essential because they reflect the thoroughness of work. Include the telephone/fax number and address where you can be reached, so a potential employer or advisor can easily find you. Include a list of three names, addresses and telephone numbers of people who can be contacted for a recommendation. Contact these references in advance to ensure they are willing to provide a good recommendation.

What information to include in a resume':

Opinions vary about the appropriate resume' style and length. The attached sample resume' provides some example headings and topics for a resume'. Remember that the priority of items on the resume' might be reordered or changed, depending on the specific job or graduate program. Proper spelling and grammar are essential! Many resumes' end up in the "circular file" if spelling or grammar errors are detected. Expensive paper with fancy logos generally do not enhance an applicant's chances.

How to obtain letters of recommendation:

Always ask a person directly if he/she is willing to write a supportive letter of recommendation. Consider asking past employers, work colleagues and instructors to write letters of support. Choose people who know you and your skills well. The best letters of recommendation are written to match the specific description of the job or graduate program. For example, an instructor will write a letter of recommendation with a different emphasis depending on whether the position is for research, teaching or graduate study. To facilitate this, always give the writer a copy of the job or graduate program description along with a résumé, a pre-addressed, stamped envelope and the line for submitting the letter of recommendation. If possible, provide an outline or draft proposal of any research to be conducted.

How to convince an advisor to accept a graduate student:

1 ) Talk to current or former graduate students of a particular advisor and ask how to promote yourself.

2) Send the advisor a letter and resume, inquiring about the possibility of working with him or her. Be specific about research interests and career goals. Follow-up with a telephone call or visit.

3) Initiate a personal contact with a potential advisor. Faculty members rarely request visits by potential students because such encouragement might be misconstrued as an agreement to serve as the student's advisor. As mentioned earlier, one good opportunity to meet a potential advisor is at a scientific conference. Another strategy is to contact a potential advisor, noting that you just "happen to be in the area" and would like to meet. It is very useful to be informed about the advisor's background, research interests and publications and point out ways that interests interface.

4) Gain practical work experience, which is an increasingly important factor in admission to a graduate program. Develop a well-rounded set of experiences, including work in the marine environment.

5) Publish in a scientific journal. Co-authoring a paper still can impress a potential advisor.

How to gain practical work experience with marine mammals:

As a high school or undergraduate student, practical experience can be gained by volunteering at federal, state, or local organizations that work with marine mammals. For example, volunteer as a laboratory assistant for a research project with marine mammals or volunteer for the marine mammal stranding network in the United States. Also, oceanaria, zoos, and museums often have large volunteer or docent programs. This volunteer experience provides practical skills, an employer reference, a network of contacts in the field of marine mammal science, and most importantly helps determine whether this type of work is appealing. Because they already have observed a volunteer's work habits and commitment, organizations often hire from their pool of volunteers. Many oceanaria, zoos, museums, and government agencies have internships that provide practical experience (see list at the end of this brochure).

Many careers in marine mammal science require experience in the marine environment. SCUBA certification, boat-handling experience, or sea time can be helpful in securing employment in the field of marine mammal science.

How to become a marine mammal trainer:

Most marine mammal trainers start by volunteering at an oceanarium or zoo. Often people work in other departments, such as operations, maintenance, or education, before transferring to a job in animal training. For the best advice about a career in marine mammal training, contact the International Marine Animal Trainers' Association.

How to become a marine mammal veterinarian:

To become a marine mammal veterinarian, follow the basic curriculum and schooling of other veterinarians, but try to gain practical experience with marine mammals by volunteering at an oceanarium or zoo. A few veterinary schools are developing specialized course work in the area of nimal medicine, including marine mammals. For more information, contact the American Veterinary Medical Association and the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine.

How to find out about jobs with marine mammals:

Often a good source for job announcements is the personnel department of a specific agency. The journal "Science" and "The Chronicle of Higher Education" list academic positions at junior colleges, colleges, and universities. Some sources of job announcements in marine mammal science appear at the end of this brochure.

Many jobs are not announced, rather are filled by volunteers at an organization, by a graduate student of a colleague, through an informal interview at a scientific conference, or from a recommendation by a colleague. In addition to what you know, who you know is very important in finding a marine mammal job. It is valuable to keep an active network of marine mammal colleagues. Attending scientific conferences is very useful for maintaining the network and identifying job opportunities. Electronic bulletin boards, such as MARMAM or WHALENET announce upcoming jobs. When looking for a job, make that fact known in these informal networks of marine mammal scientists.

Many job opportunities are a matter of being in the right place at the right time. Controlling the right time is difficult, but obtain the appropriate education, be in the right place, and wait for the right time. For example, chances of obtaining a career designing educational exhibits on marine mammals are greatly enhanced if a candidate has an M.S. degree and volunteers in the exhibits department of an oceanarium.

Good luck in pursuing a career in marine mammal science!


Jeanette Thomas, Past President
Daniel K. Odell
The Society for Marine Mammalogy


The authors thank the Marine Mammal Commission and the Board of Governors of The Society for Marine Mammalogy for their comments and editorial help.


The Society for Marine Mammalogy

The Marine Mammal Commission


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Burtis, W.S.  1991.  Ocean opportunities.  Marine Technology
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Careers in Oceanography and Marine-Related Fields: a special:
      edition with emphasis on opportunities for sensory or
     physically disabled persons. 1990. The Oceanography Society.  
     4052 Timber Ridge Drive, Virginia Beach, VA  23455

Careers in Oceanography and Marine-Related Fields.  1995.  The
     Oceanography Society.  4052 Timber Ridge Drive, Virginia
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Chronicle guidance.  Marine biologists.  1986.  Brief 543, 4th
     ed. Chronicle Guidance Publications, Inc., Moravia, NY, 5 pp. 

Heitzmann, W.R.  1988.  Opportunities in marine and maritime
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     Press.  CEIP Fund, 68 Harrison Avenue, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 

The occupational outlook handbook 1992. US Dept of Labor, Bureau
     of Labor Statistics. Superintendent of Documents, Government
     Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. 

Peterson's annual guide to undergraduate study, four year colleges.
     1995. Princeton, N J: Peterson's Guides, Inc. (annual). 

Peterson's guide to graduate programs in the biological and

     agricultural sciences, BK. 3, 25th ed. 1993. Princeton, N J:
     Peterson's Guides, Inc. 

Rucciuti, E.R. 1983. They work with wildlife: jobs for people who
     want to work with animals. New York, NY: Harper & Row
     Publisher, Inc. 

Schaefer, F.S.  Training and careers in marine science. The
     International Oceanographic Foundation, 4600 Rickenbacker
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Shorto, R. 1992. Careers for animal lovers. Interviews by Russell
     Shorto. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press. 

Stout, P.K. 1975. Marine career series: marine-related
     occupations. A primer for high school students.  University
     of Rhode Island, Sea Grant Program, Marine Memorandum No. 41,
     URI, Narragansett, RI. 

University curricula in oceanography and related fields, a guide
     to US academic and technical programs, 1988-1991.  1991. 
     Marine Technology Society, 1825 K St. NW, Washington, DC 20006.


American Society of Mammalogists.  Careers in Mammalogy
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     expected to know about biology.  American Educator, Spring
     1994. Published by the American Federation of Teachers.

Anonymous.  1994.  The Chronicle of Higher Education. Almanac. 
     Vol. 41(1). The Chronicle of Higher Education, P.O. Box
     1955, Marion, Ohio 43305, USA.  (Whole issue devoted to summary of
     colleges and universities in the U.S., with statistics about
     demographics for students, funding and programs - published

Baldwin, R.F. 1991. "Doctoring the exotic." Sea Frontiers. 37:30-35.

Barrett, G.W. and J.D. Peles. 1994. "Career trends in Mammalogy."
     Journal of Mammalogy, 75(1):92-96.

Barrett, G.W. and G.N. Cameron.  1981.  "Career trends and
     graduate education in Mammalogy." Allen Press, Lawrence,
     Kansas, 109 pp. 

Chase, V. 1992. "I'll do anything to work with whales or dolphins!" 
     Current, 11(1):31-33. 

Foer, P. 1992. "Immerse yourself in oceanic and coastal grad
     school studies."  Earth Work, 2(6):6-29. PO Box 550, Charlestown,
     NH 03603. 

Fox, W. 1992. "Conservation career closeup: National Marine
     Fisheries Service."  Earth Work. 2(6):6-31. PO Box 550,
     Charlestown, NH 03603. 

Hemdal, J. 1987. "Careers in marine biology." Freshwater and
     Marine Aquarium. 10:66-67. 

Holden, C. (ed.). 1991. "Science careers." Science. 252:1110-1148.

Lederman, L.M. 1991. "Science: the end of the frontier?" Science,
     Suppl., January.
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     Seas Reports and Studies, No. 141. 

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     Recipients from United States Universities.  National Research
     Council, Washington, DC.   [Available free of charge from:
     Doctorate Records Project, NRC, OSEP-TJ 2006, 2101 Constitution
     Ave., NW, Washington, DC  20418. phone: 202-334-3161. 
     Email: ]

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     Earth Work. 2(6):4-10. PO Box 550, Charlestown, NH 03603.



American Geophysical Union
2000 Florida Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20009

Earth Work Career Publications Service
SCA, Attn: Earth Work
P.O. Box 550
Charlestown, NH  03603
(various publications on environmental careers)

International Oceanographic Foundation 
4600 Rickenbacker
Causeway Miami, FL 33149

National Aquarium-Baltimore
Dept. of Education and Interpretation
Pier 3, 501 East Pratt Street
Baltimore, MD 21202

The Oceanography Society
4052 Timber Ridge Drive
Virginia Beach, VA 23455
    Ask for 'Careers in Oceanography and Marine-Related Fields'.


Dept. of Environmental Protection & Energy 
Division of Fish,      & Wildlife 
CN 400
Trenton, NJ 08625


Gulf Coast Research Laboratory
Scott Marine Education Center
PO Box 7000
Ocean Springs, MS 39564

National Sea Grant Office 
1335 East-West Highway 
Silver Spring, MD 20910


About Sea Grant: About

Complete listing of Sea Grant programs: Programs

Archive of Sea Grant funded documents: Documents

Sea Grant Resources: Resources

University of Alaska
University of California
University of Connecticut
University of Delaware
University of Florida
University of Georgia
University of Hawaii
University of Illinois
Louisiana State University
University of Maine
University of Maryland
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
University of Michigan
University of Minnesota
Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium
University of New Hampshire
603-862-21 75
New Jersey Marine Sciences Consortium
State University of New York
University of North Carolina
Ohio State University
Oregon State University
University of Puerto Rico
Purdue University
University of Rhode Island
South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium
University of Southern California
Texas A & M University
Virginia Graduate Marine Science Consortium
University of Washington
University of Wisconsin
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
508-548-1400 x2578


American Fisheries Society
5410 Grosvenor Lane
Suite 110
Bethesda, MD 20814

National Wildlife Federation
1400 16th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036

Friends of the National Zoo
c/o Ms. Joan Grumm 
National Zoological Park
Washington, DC 20008

LASPAU (scholarships for Latin American students)
25 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA  02138

Minority Institutions
Marine Science Association
Biology Dept, Box 18540
Jackson State University
Jackson, MS 39217

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration 
Marine Policy Fellowships
National Sea Grant College Program 
1335 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910

Student Conservation Association
Resource Assistant Program
Dept. EW, Box 550
Charlestown, NH 03603

American Society of Mammalogists
List of organizations giving grants for mammal research.
American Society of Mammalogists
     Grants-in-Aid of Research up to US $1,000 open to graduate
     students and upper-level undergraduates who are MEMBERS of  
     the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MAMMALOGISTS.  Annual application 
         line in March of each year.
Albert R. and Alma Shadle Fellowship in Mammalogy
American Society of Mammalogists
     Applicants must be United States citizens and enrolled in or 
     accepted for a graduate program in Mammalogy in a United
     States college or university.  See the Journal of Mammalogy
     for additional details.


Alaska Sealife Center
P. O. Box 1329
Seward, Alaska  99664  USA

Aquarium of Niagara Falls
Intern/Volunteer program
701 Whirlpool St.
Niagara Falls, New York  14301 USA

Atlantic Cetacean Research Center
Intern/Volunteer Program
70 Thurston Point Road
PO Box 1413
Gloucester, Massachusetts  01930 USA

Belle Isle Zoo & Aquarium
Intern/Volunteer Program
PO Box 39
Royal Oak, Michigan  48068-0039 USA

Center for Coastal Studies
Intern Review Committee
Box 1036
Provincetown, Massachusetts  02657 USA

The Ocean Conservancy
Intern/Volunteer Program
1725 DeSales St., NW
Washington, D.C.  20036 USA

Whale Center of New England
Intern/Volunteer Program
PO Box 159
Gloucester, Massachusetts  01930 USA

Chicago Zoological Park
Brookfield Zoo
Intern/Volunteer Program
3300 Golf Rd.
Brookfield, Illinois  60513 USA
Clearwater Marine Aquarium
249 Windward Passage
Clearwater, Florida  33767 USA
Dolphin Research Center
Volunteer/Intern Coordinator
58901 Overseas Highway
Grassy Key, Florida 33050-6019
Dolphins Plus
P.O. Box 2728
Key Largo, Florida  33037 USA

EPCOT/Living Seas Animal Care
Walt Disney World
Michelle Matuszewski-May
2020 North Avenue of the Stars
Lake Buena Vista, Florida  32830-1000 USA
Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection
Florida Marine Research Institute
Intern/Volunteer Program      Tampa Bay Manatee Watch
100 8th Ave., S.E.
St. Petersburg, Florida  33701-5095 USA
Gulf World Marine Park
Attn: Barb Losch
15412 Front Beach Road
Panama City Beach, Florida  32413 USA
Isles of Shoals Steamship Company
Intern Program
P.O. Box 311
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 03802-0311  USA

Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Laboratory
Intern Coordinator
1129 Ala Moana Blvd.
Honolulu, Hawaii  96814  USA

Marine Mammal Research Program
Intern/Volunteer Program
Texas A&M University at Galveston
Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife
4700 Ave. U, Bldg. 303
Galveston, Texas  77551 USA

Mote Marine Laboratory
Andrea Davis, Coordinator of Intern/Volunteer Services
1600 Thompson Pkwy
Sarasota, Florida  34236 USA

Mystic Aquarium / Institute for Exploration
College Intern Program
Volunteer Program
55 Coogan Boulevard
Mystic, Connecticut  06355-1997  USA
Phone: +(860) 572-5955
National Aquarium in Baltimore
Pier 3
501 E. Pratt Street
Baltimore, Maryland  21202-3194 USA

National Museum of Natural History
Intern Coordinator, Education Office
Room 212, MRC 158
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C.  20560 USA

Friends of the National Zoo
Research Traineeship Program
National Zoological Park
Washington, D.C.  20008 USA

New England Aquarium
Intern/Volunteer Program
Central Wharf
Boston, Massachusetts  02110-3399 USA

New York Aquarium
Attn.: George Biedenbach/Training Department
610 Surf Avenue
Brooklyn, New York  11240 USA

Pacific Whale Foundation
Intern/Volunteer Program
Kealia Beach Plaza
101 N. Kihei Rd., Ste. 21
Kihei, Hawaii  96753-8833 USA
Society for Ecological and Coastal Research
Gray Whale Ecology and Coastal Ecology Internships
P.O. Box 35052
Victoria, British Columbia  V8T 5G2
Phone: +250-472-4746

Tethys Research Institute
Viale G.B. Gadio 2
I-20121 Milano, ITALY

The John G. Shedd Aquarium
Internship Coordinator
1200 S. Lake Shore Drive
Chicago, Illinois 60605 USA
The Oceania Project (humpback whale research)
P.O. Box 646
Byron Bay
248N New South Wales

Theater of the Sea
Intern/Volunteer Program
84721 Overseas Highway
Islamorada, Florida  33036 USA

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Volunteer Program
1011 E. Tudor Road
Anchorage, Alaska  99503 USA

U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Internship Program
DruAnn Clark, coordinator of Volunteer Programs <>
Snail Mail applications to:
Mark Xitco
Attn: Volunteer Programs
Space and Naval Warfare Center, Code D351
53560 Hull Street
San Diego, CA  92152

Waikiki Aquarium
Intern/Volunteer Program
2777 Kalakaua Ave.
Honolulu, Hawaii  96815 USA

Whale Research Group
Dr. Jon Lien
230 Mount Scio Rd.
Memorial University of Newfoundland
St. John's, Newfoundland

Green Volunteers: An international list of volunteer opportunities
                  (list costs US$16.00 plus $5.00 postage)
    Lists more than 100 opportunities world-wide,
    Includes many marine mammal projects.
    Short and long-term term opportunities available.
    Some projects require a financial contribution.
Contact: Green Volunteers         or  Green Volunteers
         P. O. Box 23                 1 Greenleaf Woods Drive, #302A
         Sandy, Bedfordshire          Portsmouth, New Hampshire  03810 USA 
         United Kingdom  SG19 2XE
   phone/fax: +44-1767-262481         phone: 1-800-525-9379

FIELD PROGRAMS (Pay to volunteer):

Cetacean Behavior Lab Internships
c/o Dr. R. H. Defran
Department of Psychology
San Diego State University
San Diego, CA  92182 USA

Coastal Ecosystems Research Foundation
2648 Tennis Cr.
Vancouver, BC  V6T 2E1
phone: + 604-224-2642

680 Mount Auburn Street
P.O. Box 403
Watertown, MA  02272-9104 USA

Ecovolunteer Program
Meijersweg 29
7553 AX Hengelo
The Netherlands

Mingan Island Cetacean Study
285 Green Street
St. Lambert, Quebec   J4P 1T3

Oceanic Society Expeditions
Fort Mason Center - Bldg. E
San Francisco, CA  94123 USA

ORES - Centre for Coastal Field Studies
Postfach 756
4502 Solothurn
Phone: +41-32-6236354
School for Field Studies
16 Broadway Street
Beverly, MA  01915 USA

Tethys Research Institute
Viale G.B. Gadio 2
I-20121 Milano, ITALY
University Research Expedition Programs
University of California
Berkeley, CA  94720-6586 USA
University Programs
Links to specific programs

Careers in Mammalogy and The Science of Mammalogy
American Society of Mammalogists (This is a PDF file.)

Careers in Marine Science (Australia)
C. Johnson and K. Bleakely (eds)  
5th Edition, 1993
     Australian Marine Sciences Association, Inc.
     Cost: $3.00 Australian plus postage  (A$2.50 to the U.S.)
     Lists all Australian marine science programs.
     Available from: School of Marine Sciences, University of
     Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia

Marine Science Careers. A Sea Grant Guide to Ocean Opportunities (1996 edition)
Sea Grant Communications Office
University of New Hampshire
Kingman Farm
Durham, NH  03824-3512
     Cost: US$5.00; make checks payable to UNH

Careers in Oceanography and Marine-Related Fields (1995)
 (no charge for single copies)
The Oceanography Society
4052 Timber Ridge Road
Virginia Beach, VA  23455
Directory of Graduate Programs:
(ask for most recent edition)
13th Edition, Vol E.
Educational Testing Services,
Warner Books
U.S News and World Report Colleges and Careers Center

Peterson's Graduate Directory
Dept 6608, PO Box 2123
166 Bunn Drive
Princeton, NJ 08543

Sea Technology Buyer's Guide
Annual Directory, Section F
Educational Institutions
Compass Publications, Inc.
Suite 1000, 1117 N 19th Street
Arlington, VA 22209

See listing in Foer 1992

See listing in Klinowska 1992


American Cetacean Society
PO Box 1391
San Pedro, CA 90733  USA

American Society of Mammalogists
H. Duane Smith, Secretary-Treasurer
501 Widtsoe Building
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602

American Veterinary Medical Association
1931 N Mecham Road
Suite 1000
Schaumburg, IL 60173  USA

European Association for Aquatic Mammals 
c/o Kai Mattsson
33230 Tampere
European Cetacean Society
Dr. Harald Benke
Deutches Museum fur Meereskunde und Fischerei
Katharinenberg 14-20
D-18439 Stralsund

International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine
c/o Dr. Donald Abt, Secretary Treasurer
61 São Paulo Drive
East Falmouth, MA  02536  USA

International Marine Animal Trainers Association
c/o Shelley Ballmann, Secretary
1200 South Lake Shore Drive
Chicago, IL 60605  USA
Fax: +312-939-2216
The Society for Marine Mammalogy


Try this link for more online career guides and documents.

American Cetacean Society
P.O. Box 1391
San Pedro, California  90733  USA
British Columbia Marine Mammal Directory
West Coast Whale Research Foundation
2020-1040 West Georgia Street
Vancouver, BC  V6E 4H1

Chronicle Guidance Publications
P.O. Box 1190
Moravia, NY  13118-1190
Occupational Brief #543 - Marine Biologists
Occupational Brief #200 - Oceanographers
The Environmental Sourcebook
Lyons & Burford
31 W 21st Street
New York, NY 10010

Conservation Directory
National Wildlife Federation
1400 16th Street NW
Washington, DC 20036
(ask for most recent edition)
Student Conservation Association
Resource Assistant Program
Earth Work
Dept. EW, Box 550
Charlestown, NH 03603

US Ocean Scientists & Engineers Directory 
     (ask for most recent edition) 
American Geophysical Union 
2000 Florida
Avenue NW Washington, DC 20009

The Directory of National Environmental Organizations
U.S. Environmental Directories
P.O. Box 65156
St. Paul, MN  55165


Try this link for additional job listings on the web.
American Women in Science
Earth Work
Circulation Office
PO Box 550
Charlestown, NH 03603

Environmental Careers Organization
286 Congress Street
Boston, MA 02210

U.S. Government Jobs
via FEDWORLD Electronic Bulletin Board
(see FedWorld listing under Electronic Mail)

Minority Institutions
Marine Science Association
Biology Dept, Box 18540
Jackson State University
Jackson, MS 39217

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration 
Personnel Operations Division 
1335 East-West Highway 
Silver Spring, MD 20910

US Office of Personnel Management 
Summer Job Opportunities in the
Federal Government No. 414 (Free Copies)
1900 E Street NW, Room 1416
Washington, DC 20415

Women's Aquatic Network
Box 4993
Washington, DC 20008


American Association of Zookeepers
Michael Illig
Metro Washington Park Zoo
4001 SW Canyon Road
Portland, OR 97221

American Zoo and Aquarium Association
7970-D Old Georgetown Road
Bethesda, MD 20814


American Physician and Scientist
gopher to 70

Academic Position Network

Academic Employment Network
American Physiological Society

Career Magazine
Searchable job listings for a variety of careers

Chronicle of Higher Education - Academe This Week
The latest week's job listings

Career Links - a number of links to sites with career information.
gopher to []

Employment Opportunities and Job Resources on the Internet
gopher to
look under the [inetdirs] menu heading

Financial Aid

International Marine Mammal Association

National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA  22161 USA

MARMAM on Internet
Marine Mammal Discussion Group
To subscribe:  send email to:
In the body of the message write: subscribe marmam YourFirstName YourLastName.
Where YourFirstName and YourLastName are replaced by your REAL name.

Tethys Research Institute
Viale G.B. Gadio 2
I-20121 Milano, ITALY

Texas Marine Mammal Research Program

The Electronic Zoo

UseNet NewsGroups

Environet, Park Science Building
Simmons College
300 Fenway
Boston, MA 02115


Marine Careers (1992)
VHS or Beta, 18 min. 
     Purchase or rent
Marine Communications Office
University of Delaware
Newark, DE 19716


SeaWorld California
Education Department
1720 South Shores Road
San Diego, CA  92109

SeaWorld Florida
Education Department
7007 Sea World Drive
Orlando, FL 32821-8097

SeaWorld Ohio
Education Department
1100 Sea World Drive
Aurora, OH  44202

SeaWorld Texas
Education Department
10500 Sea World Drive
San Antonio, TX  78251